DNS over TLS in FreeBSD with Quad9

It has come to my attention that Quad9 have a blog post providing incorrect instructions for how to set up a FreeBSD system to use their service. I have attempted to get in touch with the author and get him to correct it but have received no response. So here, for the benefit of the Great Search Engine Gods, is the correct procedure; see my earlier post on the topic for more details on how it works.

# cat >/etc/rc.conf.d/local_unbound <<EOF
local_unbound_forwarders=" 2620:fe::fe@853#dns.quad9.net 2620:fe::9@853#dns.quad9.net"
# service local_unbound setup
# service local_unbound restart

No need to reboot.

Note that if you only have IPv4, you may experience slightly degraded performance unless you leave out the IPv6 addresses from the local_unbound_forwarders line (and vice versa in the unlikely scenario where you only have IPv6).

Automatic Let’s Encrypt certificates in Apache with mod_md

Since 2.4.30, Apache comes with experimental support for ACME certificates (Let’s Encrypt et al.) in the form of mod_md (short for “managed domains”). It’s kind of a pain but it’s still better than what I had before, i.e. a mess of shell and Perl scripts based on Crypt::LE, and if your use case is limited to Apache, it appears to be simpler than Certbot as well. Unfortunately for me, it’s not very well documented and I wasted a considerable amount of time figuring out how to use it. Fortunately for you, I then decided to blog about it so you don’t have to repeat my mistakes.

Edit: the author of mod_md, Stefan Eissing, got in touch and pointed me to his own documentation, which is far superior to the one available from Apache.

Continue reading “Automatic Let’s Encrypt certificates in Apache with mod_md”

wtf, zsh

wtf, zsh

wtf, zsh

% uname -sr
FreeBSD 12.1-RELEASE-p10
% for sh in sh csh bash zsh ; do printf "%-8s" $sh ; $sh -c 'echo \\x21' ; done 
sh      \x21
csh     \x21
bash    \x21
zsh     !
% cowsay wtf, zsh       
< wtf, zsh >
        \   ^__^
         \  (oo)\_______
            (__)\       )\/\
                ||----w |
                ||     ||

I mean. Bruh. I know it’s intentional & documented & can be turned off, but every other shell defaults to POSIX semantics…


% ln -s =zsh /tmp/sh
% /tmp/sh -c 'echo \x21'

Netlink, auditing, and counting bytes

In which we find bugs in both the kernel and userspace parts of the Linux audit subsystem.

I’ve been messing around with Linux auditing lately, because of reasons, and ended up having to replicate most of libaudit, because of other reasons, and in the process I found bugs in both the kernel and userspace parts of the Linux audit subsystem.

Continue reading “Netlink, auditing, and counting bytes”


Time for my annual “oh shit, I forgot to bump the copyright year again” round-up!

In the F/OSS community, there are two different philosophies when it comes to applying copyright statements to a project. If the code base consists exclusively (or almost exclusively) of code developed for that specific project by the project’s author or co-authors, many projects will have a single file (usually named LICENSE) containing the license, a list of copyright holders, and the copyright dates or ranges. However, if the code base incorporates a significant body of code taken from other projects or contributed by parties outside the project, it is customary to include the copyright statements and either the complete license or a reference to it in each individual file. In my experience, projects that use the BSD, ISC, MIT, adjacent licenses tend to use the latter model regardless.

Continue reading “Bump”